The official website of the National Health Council issued the New Coronavirus vaccination question and answer (updated in March 31, 2021) in April 1st:
Is vaccination necessary?
The vast majority of people in China have no immunity to the New Coronavirus and are susceptible to infection. After vaccination, on the one hand, most people will be immune , thereby effectively reducing the risk of serious illness and death. On the other hand, by gradually inoculating the New Coronavirus vaccine, an immune barrier is slowly established in the population. Blocking the epidemic will restore the normal operation of social economy and residents’ life as soon as possible.
2 How does the New Coronavirus vaccines react in the human body?
Protective antibodies are produced after vaccination. Some vaccines can also make the human body produce cellular immunity and form corresponding immune memory. Once the new coronavirus invades the human body, the antibody produced by the vaccine and the cytokines released by the cellular immune system can recognize, neutralize or kill the virus. Immune memory can quickly mobilize the function of the immune system and prevent the virus from reproducing in the body, so as to achieve the purpose of disease prevention.
3. At present, how many kinds of New Coronavirus vaccines have been granted conditional listing or emergency use in China?
China’s New Coronavirus vaccine has been approved for five manufacturers, which can be used for conditional sales or emergency use. Among them, three inactivated vaccines and one adenovirus vector vaccine have been conditionally approved for marketing; in addition, one recombinant new coronavirus vaccine (CHO cell) has been approved for emergency use.
- The three kinds of New Coronavirus inactivated vaccine products approved and conditionally listed are produced by China National Biological Beijing Biological Products Research Institute Co., Ltd. (Beijing), Wuhan Biological Products Research Institute Co., Ltd. (Wuhan) and Beijing Kexing middle Health Biotechnology Co., Ltd. , Ltd. Ltd. (Kexing Zhongwei).
- The conditionally approved adenovirus vector vaccine is produced by cannino Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (cannino).
- The emergency recombinant subunit vaccine is produced by Anhui zhifeilong Kema biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
5. How is traceability of the whole process of vaccine circulation carried out ?
The “vaccine management law” requires the state to implement the electronic traceability system for the whole process of vaccine. After the vaccine goes on the market, there must be accurate and standardized records in the production, transportation, storage, use and other aspects. The information of the whole traceability record includes vaccine variety, vaccine manufacturer, dosage form, specification, batch number, expiration date and case information. Through vaccination informatization, all localities can timely input the above information into the system to realize the electronic traceability of the whole process of vaccine circulation and use.
6 At this stage, who are the target of vaccination?
The vaccine is targeted at people over the age of 18.
7. How many doses of the New Coronavirus vaccine is currently approved ? How long is the interval?
- At present, the new Coronavirus inactivated vaccine needs two doses. The interval between the first and second doses should be 3 weeks or more, and second dose should be completed as soon as possible within 8 weeks after the first.
- Adenovirus vector vaccine needs one dose.
- The recombinant subunit vaccine requires three doses. It is recommended that the interval between the first and second administration and between the second and third administration be greater than 4 weeks. The second administration should be completed within 8 weeks after the first administration, and the third administration should be completed within 6 months after the first administration.
8. Where to go for vaccination?
The vaccination of New Coronavirus is carried out in the vaccination unit approved by the local health administration department. Vaccination units are generally located in health service centers, township hospitals or general hospitals within the jurisdiction. If vaccination involves some local departments or enterprises, the focus will be more concentrated. Some temporary vaccination units will be set up according to local conditions.
9. What are the contraindications of vaccination?
Vaccination contraindications refer to situations where vaccination should not be given. According to the New Coronavirus vaccination technical guidelines (First Edition), the common contraindications of vaccination include: 1. （2） Allergic to the active ingredients of the vaccine, any non active ingredients, substances used in the production process, or to the same kind of vaccine previously inoculated by the person who is allergic in the vaccination process. In the past, people with severe allergic reactions (such as acute allergic reaction, vascular edema, dyspnea, etc.) to vaccines. People with uncontrolled epilepsy and other serious nervous system diseases (such as rhabdomyositis, Guillain Barre syndrome, demyelinating disease, etc.). Patients with fever, acute disease, acute attack of chronic disease and uncontrolled severe chronic disease. pregnant woman. Some contraindications, such as fever, are temporary. When the conditions leading to contraindications no longer exist, vaccination can be given later.
10. How to find the major contraindications of vaccination?
In the process of implementation, if there is a serious allergic reaction in the first dose of vaccine, it cannot be ruled out that it is caused by the vaccine, and the second dose is not recommended. In order to understand the composition of the vaccine, people allergic to the composition of the vaccine should not be vaccinated.
At the time of vaccination, the recipient should truthfully report the health status, medical history, allergic history, etc. to the doctor
11. Can New Coronavirus vaccines from different manufacturers take the place of vaccination?
According to the New Coronavirus vaccine technology guide (First Edition), it is recommended that the whole vaccination process be completed using the same company’s inactivated vaccine. In the special case of supply limitation and remote vaccination, the inactivated vaccine produced by other companies can be used.
12. Which part of the body should the vaccine be administered ?
At present, the five approved new coronavirus vaccination sites are located in the upper arm deltoid muscle, and the route of vaccination is intramuscular injection.
13. What should I pay attention to in the process of vaccination?
In the process of vaccination, the recipient should pay attention to and cooperate with the following :
Before vaccination, we should have a knowledge of new coronavirus vaccination process in advance.
When vaccinating, you need to bring relevant documents (ID card, passport, etc.), and maintain personal protection according to the local prevention and control requirements, cooperate with the on-site vaccination personnel to inquire, and truthfully provide your own health status and vaccination contraindications information.
After inoculation, stay for 30 minutes; keep the skin of the inoculation site clean and avoid scratching with hands; if there is any suspected adverse reaction, report it to the inoculation unit and see a doctor if necessary.
14. Why Should I stay for half an hour after vaccination?
After vaccination, very few people may have acute allergic reactions and syncope. Severe life-threatening acute allergic reactions usually occur within 30 minutes after vaccination. If there is an acute allergic reaction, timely treatment measures can be taken at the scene. Syncope also mostly occurs within half an hour after vaccination. If you leave the observation point immediately , you may cause accidental injury due to syncope. Therefore, the recipient needs to stay in the designated area of the vaccination unit for half an hour after vaccination.
15 what is the dose interval of the inactivated vaccine?
Generally speaking, inactivated vaccines need to be inoculated many times to achieve better immune effect. According to the clinical trial data, the first dose of inactivated new crown vaccine can stimulate the body to produce partial immune response, and the second dose can produce better immune effect. According to the results of clinical trials, the minimum dose interval is usually determined by the dose interval. If the two doses of vaccine cannot be completed within the time interval required by the plan, replantation should be carried out as soon as possible.
16. How do people who have not completed the whole immunization plan undergo replantation? Need to start over?
It is suggested that those who have not been vaccinated should be vaccinated as soon as possible, and there is no need to re vaccinate according to the immunization program.
17 . Do people vaccinated with two doses of inactivated vaccine for less than 3 weeks need revaccination?
Within 14 days, 2 doses of New Coronavirus inactivated vaccine should be completed, and 1 inactivated vaccine should be provided as soon as possible after second doses of vaccination 3 weeks. If two doses of inactivated new coronavirus vaccine were completed within 14-21 days, no replantation is needed.
18. At present, after all the new inactivated coronavirus vaccines have been inoculated, is it necessary to strengthen the immunization?
At present, it is not recommended to strengthen immunization.
19. After inoculating the New Coronavirus inactivated vaccine, if we want to inoculate through other technical means, is this method scientific?
Currently, vaccination with New Coronavirus inactivated vaccine requires two doses of immunization. After the completion of two doses of inactivated vaccine, whether it is necessary to strengthen the immunization or it can be enhanced by other technical means need further study.
20 It is suggested that HPV vaccine and New Coronavirus vaccine should not be inoculated simultaneously. How long is the interval?
The New Coronavirus vaccine is a new type of vaccine. In order to facilitate the identification of suspected vaccine adverse effects, it is not recommended to inoculate New Coronavirus vaccine with other vaccines, including human papillomavirus vaccine. However, this does not mean that other vaccines cannot be vaccinated after the new coronavirus vaccine. It is only recommended that the new coronavirus vaccine and other vaccines should be vaccinated at an interval of more than two weeks. It must be noted that the interval time of new coronavirus vaccination may not be considered when the rabies , tetanus and immunoglobulin vaccine are urgently needed due to animal injury, trauma and other reasons.
21. Can women of childbearing period and lactation be vaccinated?
If you are pregnant after vaccination, or do not know that you are pregnant, vaccination is based on the understanding of the safety of the vaccine. It is not recommended that special medical measures (such as termination of pregnancy) be taken only because of the vaccination of New Coronavirus. Pregnancy examination and follow-up are recommended. For women with pregnancy plans, there is no need to delay just because of the new coronavirus vaccine.
Although there is no clinical research data on the effects of New Coronavirus vaccination on lactation babies, breast-feeding women with high risk of new coronavirus infection (such as medical staff) are recommended for vaccination based on the knowledge of vaccine safety. Taking into account the importance of breastfeeding to the nutrition and health of infants, it is recommended that breastfeeding women continue breastfeeding after vaccination with reference to international practice.
22. Can people aged 60 and above be vaccinated ?
People aged 60 and over are those who are at high risk of serious illness and death after infection with the new coronavirus. At present, the number of three phase clinical trials of four New Coronavirus vaccines with conditional approval is limited to this group. Phase III trials of the recombinant subunit vaccine are still in progress, and there is no data on the protective effect of the vaccine on this population. However, the data of phase I / II clinical studies showed that this population had good vaccination safety. The neutralizing antibody titer did not change significantly compared with that of 18-59 years old people
23.Can people under 18 be vaccinated at this stage?
At present, the existing vaccine has not yet obtained the clinical trial data of this population, and it is not recommended to vaccinate people under 18 years old.
24. Can patients with chronic diseases be vaccinated ?
Patients with chronic diseases refer to those who are seriously ill and have a high risk of death after infection with New Coronavirus. People with stable health and well controlled chronic diseases are not regarded as contraindications for New Coronavirus vaccination.
25. Can people with impaired immune function be vaccinated?
People with impaired immune function are those at high risk of serious disease and death after being infected with the new coronavirus. At present, there is no data about the safety and efficacy of New Coronavirus vaccine for people (such as malignant tumors, nephrotic syndrome, AIDS patients) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The immune response and protection of these people may be reduced after vaccination. For inactivated vaccine and recombinant subunit vaccine, according to the safety characteristics of the same kind of vaccine in the past, vaccination is recommended; for adenovirus vector vaccine, although the vector virus used has replication defects, there is no safety data for the same kind of vaccine used in the past. It is suggested that after fully understanding the situation, individuals should weigh the benefits over the risks and vaccinate.
26. If I have been infected with the new coronavirus, do I need to be vaccinated?
Available research data shows that there are few cases of reinfection within 6 months after new coronavirus infection. People who have been infected with the new coronal pneumonia virus (patients or asymptomatic patients) can receive one dose after 6 months on the basis of full notice.
27. How long does it take to produce antibodies against new coronavirus after vaccination with inactivated vaccine
According to the previous clinical trial of New Coronavirus inactivated vaccine, the inoculated population can produce better immune effect after two weeks of inoculation with second inactivated vaccine.
28. Is it necessary to do a nucleic acid test before and after vaccination?
New coronavirus nucleic acid and antibody tests are not necessary before vaccination; conventional antibody tests are not recommended as the basis for successful immunization after vaccination.
29. Do I need nucleic acid test after I get the new coronavirus vaccine? Can vaccination certificate replace nucleic acid test report?
After vaccination with New Coronavirus, a small number of people had positive nucleic acid test . The reasons are as follows: 1. After the whole vaccination period, due to immune failure, some individuals did not get effective protection. These people later came into contact with the new coronavirus, they may be infected with the new coronavirus, nucleic acid positive or sick. It takes some time for the vaccine to produce protective effect. If you are infected with a new coronavirus during this period, you may be nucleic acid positive or sick. . Patients with latent disease or asymptomatic infection may still be infected with nucleic acid positive or disease even after vaccination.
When nucleic acid screening is needed for the prevention and control of new coronavirus, the new coronavirus vaccination certificate can not replace the nucleic acid test report.
30.Is the new coronavirus vaccine still effective after the new coronavirus mutates?
From the global monitoring of the New Coronavirus mutation, there is no evidence that the virus mutation will cause the existing New Coronavirus vaccine to fail. Viruses are one of the simplest organisms. Their proliferation depends on living cells. During reproduction, the virus mutates. WHO, national research institutes and vaccine manufacturers are paying close attention to the variation of New Coronavirus. They are also conducting relevant research to provide early warning and scientific analysis basis for the development and application of follow-up vaccines.
31. What is the abnormal reaction of suspected vaccination? What is included?
Suspected adverse reaction of vaccination (AEFI) refers to the reaction or event related to vaccination after vaccination, also known as suspected adverse reaction of vaccine. It includes adverse reaction of vaccine, reaction related to vaccine quality problems, reaction related to vaccination errors, psychogenic reaction and coupling disorder (coupling reaction).
32. what are the common adverse reactions of New Coronavirus vaccination?
From the initial clinical trial results of New Coronavirus vaccine and the data collected during emergency use, the occurrence of common adverse reactions of New Coronavirus vaccine in China is basically similar to that of other widely used vaccines. The common adverse reactions included swelling, induration, pain, fever, fatigue, nausea, headache, muscle soreness and other clinical manifestations. Follow up departments will continue to strengthen the real-time monitoring and evaluation of adverse reactions.
33. What’s the difference between general vaccination reaction and abnormal vaccination reaction?
General and abnormal reactions are adverse reactions of vaccine, which are caused by the characteristics of the vaccine itself. They have nothing to do with the purpose of vaccination or unexpected reactions, but are related to the individual differences of the recipients. There are differences in the following aspects: 1. Frequency and severity: general reactions accounted for the vast majority of adverse reactions. They are transient, mild physical reactions that usually do not require treatment; abnormal reactions mainly refer to adverse reactions. Reactions associated with organ or functional impairment in these people are rare and often require treatment. Clinical manifestations: the general manifestations of systemic reactions are local reactions such as swelling, induration and pain at the inoculation site, and systemic reactions such as fever, fatigue and headache; the most abnormal reactions are acute and severe allergic reactions. Three. Need to report: most minor systemic reactions do not need to be reported; all suspected serious abnormal reactions need to be reported. Investigation and diagnosis: general reactions generally do not need investigation and diagnosis; suspected severe abnormal reactions need to be investigated and diagnosed by the investigation and diagnosis expert group organized by the disease control agency. If there is any objection to the conclusion of investigation and diagnosis, the municipal or provincial drugs may be used, and an expert group shall be organized for identification.
34. Will our prevention and control measures be adjusted after vaccination?
For individuals, the protective effect of vaccination is not 100%, and it takes a certain amount of time to produce protective antibodies; for groups, the new coronavirus is still easy to spread without forming an immune barrier. Therefore, in order to prevent the rebound of new coronary pneumonia, we must adhere to some prevention and control measures at this stage, including wearing masks, keeping social distance, washing hands frequently, ventilation and other protective measures. With the improvement of the population coverage of the new crown vaccine and the changes of the disease epidemic situation at home and abroad, the crowd prevention and control measures of the new crown epidemic will be timely adjusted.
Source: Official Website of the National Health Council